"Self-Regulated Learning in the Context of Teacher Education"
Abstract: Self-regulation usually refers to awareness and knowledge of one's learning and cognition and the control of one's cognition that renders this ability essential in learning and development. Recently, the concept has been studied intensively, except in professional learning. The concept's potential is especially good in student teacher learning since prospective teaching professionals are likely to be confronted with modes of learning based on self-regulation to be adopted in their teaching. Also, new approaches to meaningful, active learning in teacher education programmes encourage teacher educators to promote self-regulation in their students. A qualitative study in two countries investi- gated the di!erences in perceptions among teacher educators and student teachers about meaning, implementation and expected behaviours of self-regulation as a vehicle for learning in teacher education programmes. Results from the interviews indicate clear support for the concept of self-regulated learning, although the conditions for its actual implementation are not always favourable. Self-regulation places considerable demands on organization and curricula in teacher education. Student teachers were found to have a more positive attitude toward self-regulated learning and higher expectations about their own self-regulative competencies than their teachers, who seemed more con- cerned with their students' preparation for the profession. Highlighting self-regulation in teacher education pro- grammes requires new ways of interaction between teacher educators and their students

"Adult Interactions and Child Engagement"
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to investigate how engagement varied as a function of concurrent adult interactions (e.g.; age, ratings of typical engagement). Eleven child care teachers and 63 children were videotaped in 93 naturally occuring child care situations. Two teacher interaction categories, elaborations and information giving, were associated with participatory engagement, attention, and low engagement. Interaction behaviors that were responsive without providing direction and those that were directive without responding to children were not associated with engagement. Individually targetted interactions produced more engagement than did group-targeted interactions. Chronological age, developmental age, and rating of persistence did not statistically significantly affect engagement.

"Mentoring Student Teachers to Support Self-Regulated Learning"
Abstract: We use the term “self-regulated learning” (SRL) to describe independent, highly effective approaches to learning that are associated with success in and beyond school. Research has indicated that fostering SRL in elementary school children requires a level of instructional sophistication and student awareness that may be beyond the capabilities of beginning teachers. This article presents findings from the first 2 years in a 4-year investigation of whether and how highly effective, high-SRL teachers in a large, diverse, suburban Canadian school district can mentor student teachers to design tasks and develop practices that promote elementary school students’ SRL. Across Years 1 and 2, 37 student teachers were paired with 37 mentor teachers in grades K–5 in a cohort that emphasized SRL theory and practice. In general, student teachers remained with the same mentors throughout their yearlong teacher education program and were supported by faculty associates (teachers seconded by the university to supervise student teachers’ practice) and researchers who also had expertise in promoting SRL. Researchers observed mentor and student teachers teaching, vid- eotaped professional seminars, and collected samples of student teachers’ reflections on teaching, lesson plans, and unit plans. The observational data, which are the focus of this article, indicated that many student teachers were capable of designing tasks and implementing practices associated with the promotion of SRL. In general, student teachers’ tasks and practices resembled those of their mentors, and the complexity of the tasks that mentors and student teachers designed was strongly predictive of opportunities for students to develop and engage in SRL.

"The Development of a Professional Development Classroom Management Model on At-Risk Elementary Students' Misbehaviors"
Abstract: The study implemented a classroom management model to improve the classroom management skills of the 11 teachers who worked with the 224 students in the four grade levels. The generic research design was the concurrent mixed methods research design. Descriptive statistics were calculated; the infer- ential statistical model was the two-sided z test. Findings for research question 1 showed the mean number of discipline refer- rals decreased by 11 referrals. Findings for research question 2 showed the number of suspensions decreased by 26 suspensions.

"Studies to Deepen Understanding and Enhance Classroom Management Skills in Preschool Teacher Training"
Abstract: This article adds to the existing body of data that demonstrates how the use of in-depth case studies that include social episode analysis can deepen the teaching students’ and researchers’ understanding of the perceptions and skills needed for Classroom Management (CM). In this article, CM is defined as a meta-skill that integrates cog- nitive perceptions (proactive, ecological-systemic, and leadership-oriented), self-regulation skills, and interper- sonal relationships with students and colleagues. CM is also perceived as a cyclical process that includes advance planning, implementation, assessment during the imple- mentation, and a final evaluation that takes into account factors related to the children and their environment, intended to bring about progress in the activities carried out for the learning and emotional well-being of the children in the class. Two cases showing opposite positions with regard to social-moral CM were selected from 34 cases documented by second-year, 4-year-track, preservice teaching students enrolled in a CM course in Israel in the spring of 2008. One case shows how, guided by the desire to ensure a child’s well-being, a student developed per- ceptions and skills related to all components of the CM theoretical framework. The other case shows how oppor- tunities were missed to learn and develop a social-moral, complex, CM perception. Based on an analysis of the two cases, the discussion examines the usefulness of case studies in teacher training and offers insights related to improved teacher training.

"First Days of School in the Classrooms of Two More Effective and Four Less Effective Primary Grade Teachers"
Abstract: We observed 6 primary-grades teachers in public and private schools in this study. Based on mid-year observations, 2 of these teachers were much more effective compared to the other 4 in producing greater student engagement and literacy progress, as determined by video and observation data of multiple content areas and as rated by the Classroom AIMS instrument. These 2 more effective teachers began the school year differently than the other teachers, again documented through observation of their teaching. Consistent with previous studies, the 2 more effective teachers did more to establish routines and procedures at the beginning of the year. In addition, compared to the less effective teachers, on the first days of school the more effective teachers offered more engaging activities, more enthusiastically introduced reading and writing, indicated higher expectations, praised specific accomplishments of students, pointed out when specific students were behaving in a praiseworthy fashion, and encouraged student self-regulation. In short, the first days of school were very different in the classes taught by the more effective teachers from those taught by the less effective teachers.

"Crossing the Glass Wall: Using Preschool Educators' Knowledge to Enhance Parental Understanding of Children's Self Regulation and Emotion Regulation"
Abstract: This phenomenological research investigated what fifteen preschool educators have come to know about children’s self-regulation and emotion regulation development, and how we can better enable them to communicate with parents about their children’s development. The data sources included over 100 pages of transcripts, field notes and journal entries for three focus groups. Using these multiple data sources, the researcher applied the seven steps of the phenomenological analysis (Moustakas in Phenomenological research methods. Sage, Thousand Oaks, 1994) to derive a composite structural description of children’s self-regulation and emotion regulation development. This research study found a consistent conceptual view of self-regulation and emotion regulation across these preschool educators. The implications from these findings provide educators with knowledge about self-regulation and emotion regulation to facilitate communicating with parents about realistic expectations and goals for children’s self-regulation and emotion regulation.

"Parent-Delivered Compensatory Education for At Risk Educational Failure: Improving the Academic and Self-Regulatory Skills of a Sure Start Preschool Sample"
Abstract: Thirty preschoolers from low-income families participated in a 12-month intervention programme, funded by Sure Start, which engaged them in scaffolded educational activities delivered at home by their mothers. Immediately following the programme, the intervention group outperformed matched controls in tests of academic knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control, but not short-term memory or theory of mind. Teachers' ratings of children's capabilities upon school entry favoured the intervention group, especially in terms of listening, responding, writing, mathematics, and personal/social skills. Superior inhibitory control, short-term memory, and numerical skills were associated with higher ratings whereas theory of mind made a unique, negative contribution to responding. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to nurture the development of cognitive self-regulation and school readiness during early childhood.

"Teacher Practices with Toddlers During Social Problem Solving Opportunities"
Abstract: This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving for toddlers and problem solv- ing with toddlers. It also reviews teacher practices aimed at preventing problems. The article suggests a paradigm shift from perceiving social challenges as toddler problems to viewing such situations as problem solving opportunities. The article concludes by applying these principles to an actual classroom dispute among toddlers.

"Improving Self-Regulated Learning of Preschool Children: Evaluation of Training for Kindergarten Teachers"
Abstract: This study tested the effects of self-regulation training for kindergarten teachers concerning their own self-regulation and methods to foster self-regulation in children at preschool age whom they were teaching. In this study, 35 German kindergarten teachers and 97 children participated. All adult participants were graduated kindergarten teachers.The results obtained by means of analyses of variance show that the self-regulation of the kindergarten teachers as well as the self-regulated learning of preschoolers whose kindergarten teachers took part in the training improved significantly. The results indicate that it is possible to improve self-regulated learning of preschool children by a training programme for kindergarten teachers.

"The Relation of Kindergarten Classroom Environment to Teacher, Family, and School Characteristics and Child Outcomes"
Abstract: We observed 223 largely suburban or rural public school kindergarten classrooms in 3 states to describe classroom activities and child-teacher interactions involving 1 child per classroom. We also observed global classroom quality and assessed its relation to teacher, school, classroom, and family characteristics and target child out-comes. Classrooms were observed once for 3 hours starting at the beginning of the school day. Time samplings of activities, teacher behaviors, and child behaviors as well as global rating of teacher-target child interactions and the classroom environment were obtained. The most frequently observed forms of activity were structured teacher-directed activity and whole-group instruction. there was tremendous variation in the occurrence of these activities across classrooms, ranging from 0% to 100% of the observation period. Global ratings of teachers' positive interactions with the target child, classroom instructional climate, and classroom child-centered climate were lower when the concentration of poverty in the school was high, when the target child's family income was low, and when the number of staff available to work with children in that classroom was low. Target students' observed social and on-task behavior and teachers' reports of social and academic competence for target children were higher when these global ratings indicated higher quality, even controlling for family background factors. These data may have implications for educational policies on class size and composition, and issues of equity in early school experiences.

"Developing Mechanisms of Self Regulation in Early Life"
Abstract: Children show increasing control of emotions and behavior during their early years. Our studies suggest a shift in control from the brain's orienting network in infancy to the executive network by the age of 3–4 years. Our longitudinal study indicates that orienting influences both positive and negative affect, as measured by parent report in infancy. At 3–4 years of age, the dominant control of affect rests in a frontal brain network that involves the anterior cingulate gyrus. Connectivity of brain structures also changes from infancy to toddlerhood. Early connectivity of parietal and frontal areas is important in orienting; later connectivity involves midfrontal and anterior cingulate areas related to executive attention and self-regulation.

Baumeister et al. 2006 self-regulation.pdf
"Self-Regulation and Personality: How Interventions Increase Regulatory Success, and How Depletion Moderates the Effects of Traits on Behavior"
This article is written in the context of adult self-regulation, but it is enormously helpful in understanding how an initial self-regulatory task depletes the ability to self-regulate in other ways--a concept of which it is important for anyone trying to foster self-regulation to be aware. An equally important contribution of this article is the discussion of research demonstrating that self-regulation can be strengthened through exercise of the skill, similarly to exercising a muscle.
Note: Ego-depletion is NOT a reference to psychodynamic theory; it is actually a term from social psychology.

Abstract: Self-regulation is a highly adaptive, distinctively human trait that enables people to override and alter their responses, including changing themselves so as to live up to social and other standards. Recent evidence indicates that self-regulation often consumes a limited resource, akin to energy or strength, thereby creating a temporary state of ego depletion. This article summarizes recent evidence indicating that regular exercises in self-regulation can produce broad improvements in self-regulation (like strengthening a muscle), making people less vulnerable to ego depletion. Furthermore, it shows that ego depletion moderates the effects of many traits on behavior, particularly such that wide differences in socially disapproved motivations produce greater differences in behavior when ego depletion weakens the customary inner restraints.

external image McClelland%20et.%20al.pdf?h=40&w=200

"Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes"

Abstract: This study examined relations between children''s attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N =430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children''s age 4 attention span-persistence significantly predicted math and reading achievement at age 21 after controlling for achievement levels at age 7, adopted status, child vocabulary skills, gender, and maternal education level. Relations between attention span-persistence and later achievement were not fully mediated by age 7 achievement levels. Logistic regressions also revealed that age 4 attention span-persistence skills significantly predicted the odds of completing college by age 25. The majority of this relationship was direct and was not significantly mediated by math or reading skills at age 7 or age 21. Specifically, children who were rated one standard deviation higher on attention span-persistence at age 4 had 48.7% greater odds of completing college by age 25. Discussion focuses on the importance of children''s early attention span-persistence for later school achievement and educational attainment.

"Emotion-regulation ability, burnout, and job satisfaction among British secondary-school teachers"

Abstract: The topic of emotion regulation and its relationship with teacher effectiveness is beginning to garner attention by researchers. This study examined the relationship between emotion-regulation ability (ERA), as assessed by the Mayer– Salovey –Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and both job satisfaction and burnout among secondary-school teachers (N =123). It also examined the mediating effects of affect and principal support on these outcomes. ERA was associated positively with positive affect, principal support, job satisfaction, and one component of burnout, personal accomplishment. Two path models demonstrated that both positive affect and principal support mediated independently the associations between ERA and both personal accomplishment and job satisfaction.

"Measures of effortful regulation for young children"

Abstract: Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented.

"Costs and benefits of supportive versus disciplinary emotion regulation strategies in teachers"Abstract: Using 659 K-12 teachers, this study explored the extent to which well-being outcomes were affected by differential emotion regulation strategies (surface versus deep acting) for positive emotion expression (supportive display rules) versus negative emotion expression (disciplinary display rules). Analyses showed that almost half of the teachers reported disciplinary display rules as important for effectively doing their job (as compared with 97% for supportive display rules), and these perceptions were associated with increased disciplinary surface and deep acting strategies. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the proposed four-factor structure of emotional regulation strategies, and provided the best fit in relation to two alternative models (surface versus deep acting and supportive versus disciplinary). A structural equation model revealed that both supportive surface acting and disciplinary surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and both negatively predicted personal accomplishment. However, only supportive deep acting had a positive relationship with personal accomplishment. Disciplinary deep acting was unrelated to the study outcomes. These findings indicate that disciplinary emotion regulation may have the same costs to emotional exhaustion in teachers as supportive regulation, but fewer benefits in terms of increasing personal accomplishment.

"Early childhood teachers as socializers of young children’s emotional competence"
Abstract: Young children’s emotional competence—regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other’s emotions—is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are considered as important socializers of emotion, providing children experiences that promote or deter the development of emotional competence. However, compared to parents, early childhood teachers’ roles in socializing young children’s emotional competence have not been examined. Based on the findings from research on parental socialization of emotion, in this theoretical review we explore possible teacher roles in the development of young children’s emotional competence. Additionally, we suggest future research focusing on early childhood teacher socialization of emotion, and discuss theoretical and practical benefits of such research.

"Emotional regulation goals and strategies of teachers"
Abstract: This study addresses two questions: what goals do teachers have for their own emotional regulation, and what strategies do teachers report they use to regulate their own emotions. Data were collected from middle school teachers in North East Ohio, USA through a semistructured interview. All but one of the teachers reported regulating their emotions and there were no gender or experience differences in spontaneously discussing emotional regulation. Teachers believed that regulating their emotions helped their teaching effectiveness goals and/or conformed to their idealized emotion image of a teacher. Teachers used a variety of preventative and responsive emotional regulation strategies to help them regulate their emotions. Future research on teachers’ emotional regulation goals and strategies should examine the role of culture and the relationship of emotional regulation goals with teachers’ other goals, stress, and coping.

"Motivating Students: School Psychologists as Motivational Change Agents"
Abstract: The article presents a small-group intervention experiences of school psychologists or coaches through Self-Regulation Empowerment Program (SREP) in the U.S. It says that SREP supports school professionals in empowering adolescent students to engage in more positive, self-motivating strategies for learning. It adds that the students decide whether to participate in the program, the extent to which they will engage in discussions of their thoughts and feelings related to school and learning.